Squat pattern vs Hinge pattern



[En]


The evolution of an athlete is similar with the way a house is built. First you lay down the foundation represented by the basic movement patterns: squat, hip-hinge, push-up. I am not going into much more details with this as it was discussed in a previous article. Following the foundation, we build walls represented by strength. Once we have a solid base, we can start to develop it and focus on quality and not quantity. In the end, we have the roof represented by each one’s skills and most of the time this last part is the fun part because here we start to learn muscle-ups, handstand, Olympic weightlifting etc.


In this article we will stop and focus on the house foundation and we will look into the differences, or even more, the confusion that most of the people go through when asked to execute a squat or a hip hinge (hip flexion/extension)


Squats and deadlifts as movements, represent the key elements when we are targeting to increase strength, muscle hypertrophy, increasing performance or preventing/treating problems caused by sedentariness behavior. In order to take advantage of all the above benefits, a correct execution for each movement is required along with a proper training program.


You can see every day in the gym people that confuse the two movements. A deadlift transforms in a squat and the other way around. This happens due to low muscle control, proprioception or the lack of specific training.


As a general truth, these 2 movements help developing the entire muscular system due to their complexity, the high number of joints involved and the muscles working either dynamically or static to act, stabilize or eliminate unwanted movements. The main muscles recruited during squatting are the quadriceps, glutes and the adductor magnus. While for a deadlift the entire posterior muscle chain works in the same time: hamstrings, glutes, adductor magnus, erector spinae and the latissimus dorsi.


What we need to keep in mind is that in both exercises mostly the same muscles are working, but depending on the joints involved in the movement, the activity of some of them may increase or decrease.


In order to make sure that you execute correctly the 2 movements you need to learn and master the hip hinge movement.


Squat – knee dominant

Hinge – hip dominant


Even tough in both cases the movement takes place both at hip and knee level, the difference is made by the joint leading it.


Squats



• The body keeps its position almost vertical, while the knee flexion is large

• The tibia moves forward due to the knee flexion – allowing you to keep the barbell above the middle of the foot on a vertical line.

• The focus is on the knee joint. This doesn't mean that the movement starts at this level, but rather in the same time with the hip flexion. However, the movement continues mostly within the knee joint.


Deadlifts:



• The body is almost parallel with the ground, which means that the main joint used in the movement is the hip. This makes the trunk move closer to the ground until they are parallel.

• The tibia keeps the perpendicular position on the ground, keeping the knee flexion minimal during the movement

• The focus is on the hip joint.


In conclusion, when you execute either of the 2 movements, focus on the joints that are involved and you will surely be able to make the difference between deadlifts and squats.


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Evolutia unui atlet este ca si constructia unei case, prima data pui bazele unei fundatii, care e reprezentata de miscarile de baza (pattern): squat, hip-hinge, push up, dar nu intru foarte mult in detalii pentru ca am vorbit de acest lucru si in articolul anterior. Dupa fundatie, urmeaza peretii casei, acestia fiind retrezentati de forta; apoi dupa ce avem o baza putem incepe sa o dezvoltam, aici focusul nostru este pe calitate si nu pe cantitate. La final avem acoperisul care este reprezentat de abilitatile fiecaruia si care de cele mai multe ori reprezinta partea distractiva din antrenament deoarece aici invatam muscle-up, handstand, haltere.


In articolul acesta o sa ne oprim doar la fundatia casei si o sa povestim putin de diferentele sau mai bine zis, de confuzia oamenilor atunci cand trebuie sa execute un squat sau un hip hinge (flexia/extensia bazinului).


Genuflexiunile si indreptarile ca si miscare, reprezinta elementele cheie atunci cand urmarim dezvoltarea fortei, hipertofiei, cresterii performantelor sportive sau in prevenirea/tratarea problemelor asociate cu inactivitatea. Insa pentru a beneficia de toate avantajele enumerate mai sus, trebuie sa avem o executie corecta pentru fiecare miscare dar si un plan de antrenament bine definit.


Daca e sa ma raportez la ceea ce vad in fiercare zi in sala, ma refer la faptul ca multi oameni confunda cele doua miscari si atunci cand incearca sa faca o indreptare, aceasta se transforma intr-un squat si viceversa. Acest lucru se intampla din cauza lipsei controlului muscular, proprioceptiei sau din lipsa antrenamentelor specifice.


Ca si idee generala, aceste 2 miscari au ca scop dezvoltarea intregii musculaturi a corpului datorita complexitatii, a numarului mare de articulatii implicate si a muschilor care lucreaza fie dinamic, fie static pentru a indeplini actiunea sau pentru a stabiliza si a elimina orice miscare nedorita. Muschii principali recrutati in timpul genuflexiunii sunt: cvadricepsii, fesierii si adductorul mare; in timp ce in cazul indreptarilor, tot lantul posterior de muschi lucreaza la indeplinirea miscarii: femuralii, fesierii, adductorul mare, erectorii spinali si marele dorsal. Ce trebuie sa intelegem este faptul ca in ambele variante lucreaza muschii enumereti mai sus, insa in functie de articulatiile implicate in miscare activitatea anumitor muschi creste sau scade.


Pentru a putea pune in practica si a executa corect cele 2 miscari, si pentru a nu confunda indreptarea cu genuflexiunea, trebuie sa invatam miscarea de flexie-extensie a bazinului (hip hinge).


Squat= predominant genunchi

Hinge= predominant sold


Desi in ambele variante, miscarea se intampla atat la nivelul articulatiei soldului cat si a genunchiului, articulatia care conduce miscarea face diferenta.


Genuflexiuni:



  • trunchiul isi pastreaza poziția aproape verticala, in timp ce flexia genunchiului este mare.

  • tibia se deplaseaza spre inainte, ca urmare a flexiei genunchiului, acest lucru ne permite sa mentinem haltera deasupra mijlocului piciorului pe o linie verticala.

  • accentul este pus pe articulatia genunchiului. Asta nu inseamna insa ca miscarea incepe la nivelul genunchiul, ci mai degraba concomitent cu flexia soldului, dupa care miscarea se continua predominant din articulatia genunchiului


Indreptari:



  • trunchiul este aproape paralel cu solul, asta inseamna ca articulatia principala din timpul miscarii, este cea coxofemurala (bazinul) care "obliga" trunchiul sa se deplaseze spre sol pana in punctul in care cele 2 sunt paralele.

  • tibia isi pastreaza pozitia perpediculara pe sol, lucru ce are legatura cu flexia minima a genunchilor din timpul miscarii

  • accentul este pus pe articulatia soldului


In concluzie, atunci cand executati cele 2 miscari ganditi-va la articulatiile implicate in executie si cu siguranta o sa faceti diferenta intre indreptare si genuflexiune.

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